sola säkert del 3: Strålning att ha koll på

uva-uvb

Det finns tre typer av UV-strålning: UVA, UVB och UVC, indelade efter våglängd. All UV-strålning är skadlig. Så pass att World Health Organization (WHO) har klassat den som en mänsklig cancerogen. De olika formerna av strålning penetrerar huden på olika djup och ger där upphov till olika biokemiska aktiviteter.

UVA – långvågiga ultraviloletta strålar

  • Våglängd 320-400 nanometer (nm)
  • Står för 95% av den solstrålning som når jordens yta
  • Går djupare ner i huden, där den länge ansetts vara den huvudsakliga orsaken till rynkor och hudens för tidiga åldrande. Men skadar även hudens immunsystem, DNA och kan ge upphov till cancer.
  • Skadar främst genom att bilda fria syreradikaler
  • Går igenom vanligt fönsterglas och moln
  • Stimulerar bildandet av melanin (vårt pigment och hudens egna försvar mot strålning)
  • Närvarande året om, även en molnig dag
  • Svårare att blockera med solskyddsfilter i en kräm
  • SPF ingen måttstock på UVA-skydd 

UVB – kortvågiga (eller mellanlånga) ultravioletta strålar

  • Våglängd mellan 290-320 nanometer (nm)
  • Innehåller mer energi och ger därför kraftiga skador på DNA, fast i hudens mer ytliga lager
  • Ger upphov till den akuta solbrännan
  • Stimulerar bildandet av speciella enzymer (metallproteinaser) som bland annat bryter ner kollagen och elastin i läderhuden
  • Närvaron av strålarna varierar mer över dagen och med årstiderna än UVA
  • Går ej igenom glas.

UVC – kortaste ultravioletta strålningen med högst energi.

  • Våglängd lägre än 290 nm.
  • Filtreras i princip helt bort av jordens atmosfär
 
uva-uvb-diagram
UVA-UVB-solskador
 

Solskolan - mer läsning om solen!

 

Källa:
- Lennart Emtestam, ”Huden, rynkor, veck, prickar”, första upplagan, sid 15-19
- Paula Begoun, ”The original beauty bilble”, tredje upplagan, sid 87-99
- Skin Cancer Foundation, http://www.skincancer.org/prevention/uva-and-uvb/shining-light-on-ultrav...


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